Legumes have the potential to support global protein production by partially replacing meat and dairy products in the human diet. This will not only help meeting the increasing worldwide demand for proteins, but could contribute towards mitigating the threat imposed to the environment by current agricultural practices in higher-economy countries (dependence on fossil fuel energy and harmful emissions). Among the legumes, fava bean (Vicia faba L.) is a valuable crop. It is a rich source of proteins, fiber, and other non-nutrient compounds considered beneficial for health. Although a popular source of proteins in many parts of the world, especially in the Middle East, Mediterranean area, and South America, it has yet to be fully exploited in markets where meat is the predominant source of proteins in the diet. Here, fava bean cultivation could not only make a valuable contribution towards protein self-sufficiency, but could potentially play a role in alleviating the rise in chronic diseases. In addition, fava bean enables symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and can provide a more environmentally friendly substitution for industrial N-fertilizers with associated improvements in resource efficiency and production costs. From both a food security and environmental sustainability perspective, encouraging both production and consumption of fava bean is a timely and important target. This review focuses on the potential of fava bean as a functional food ingredient to partially replace meat in the human diet.
Among these proposed approaches, thermal treatment (incineration, pyrolysis and gasification) is regarded as an effective method for disposal of metal-enriched non-edible parts due to its superior biomass reduction efficiency and economic feasibility (Cui et al., 2018). Fava bean (Vicia faba L.), a leguminous plant species native to China, is an economically important legume crop and considered as an important protein source for human diet in the near future (Multari et al., 2015). It is used as a vegetable and a staple food, and consumed in both fresh and dry forms (Purves et al., 2018)
The presence of some bioactive compounds named antinutritional factors, such as phytic acid, protease inhibitors, hemagglutinins, glucosinolates, tannins, and gossypol, could also affect the digestibility of plant-based protein sources . For example, phytic acid, which is found in grains, seeds, and nuts (and is known to chelate minerals and thus reduce their bioavailability), can also interact with proteins, leading to decreased digestibility . The enzymatic hydrolysis of phytic acid by phytase during food pretreatment or production (soaking, sprouting, germination, and use of endogeneous phytase) can lower its content in foods.
Faba bean is a versatile crop used globally as food, feed, forage, and medicine and as a cover crop. Its seeds help meet the basic dietary needs of millions of people and animals worldwide, as they are a rich source of plant protein, nutrients and dietary fiber (Duc, 1997;Multari, Stewart, & Russell, 2015;Warsame, O’Sullivan, & Tosi, 2018). The immature green pods and seeds of faba bean are marketed as a fresh or frozen vegetable.
Recently, molecular makers linked to genes controlling the content of tannins, vicine and convicine have been reported (Khazaei et al., 2017). Molecular-based approaches facilitate a rapid and more efficient selection of vicine-and convicine-free faba bean biotypes; however, cultivars selected for low pyrimidine glycosides content negatively impact crop yield (Multari, Stewart, & Russell, 2015).
Among these proposed approaches, thermal treatment (incineration, pyrolysis and gasification) is regarded as an effective method for disposal of metal-enriched non-edible parts due to its superior biomass reduction efficiency and economic feasibility (Cui et al., 2018). Fava bean (Vicia faba L.), a leguminous plant species native to China, is an economically important legume crop and considered as an important protein source for human diet in the near future (Multari et al., 2015). It is used as a vegetable and a staple food, and consumed in both fresh and dry forms (Purves et al., 2018
Fava bean (Vicia faba) is one of the oldest leguminous plant species native to China. It has a wide ecological adaptation and is an important source of proteins for human diet (Multari et al., 2015) and livestock (Vioque et al., 2012). Fava bean is a fast growth, high biomass crop, more tolerant to trace element stress than other legumes and a potential candidate for phytoremediation .
Pulses represent a nutritionally-and economically-viable protein source in developing countries where the consumption of animal proteins is scarce and expensive (1). In developed countries, pulses are often considered as alternative sources of protein, particularly as key ingredients in vegan foods.
Lentil, normally grown in dryland conditions, has high protein content and therefore plays a major role in the food and nutritional security of millions, particularly among low-income families in Asia (Erskine et al. 2011). Faba bean also provides food and feed and contributes positively to the N economy of dryland agriculture (Denton et al. 2017), and it is rich in protein (Multari et al. 2015)
The amino acid make-up of faba bean protein is slightly less favourable than that of pea for nutritional purposes, with lower levels of amino acids such as lysine and threonine (Erbersdobler et al. 2017). Globulin proteins, predominantly vicilin and legumin, make up 61-78% of total seed protein ( Table 2) than vicilin, dominates this fraction in faba bean (M€ untz et al. 1999;Multari et al. 2015). As with other pulse seeds, the low concentrations of SAAs in faba bean storage proteins are notable (Warsame et al. 2018).
However, studies on mice showed that a lectin from kidney beans possesses anticarcinogenic effects. 3 The bioavailability of protein is limited also by tannins, one of the main faba bean ANFs, present as condensed tannins, mainly located in the hulls, and ranging from 5 to 10 g/kg of dry matter. 9,19 The high affinity for proline-rich proteins is responsible for the formation of insoluble complexes.
1 As international demand for protein increases, faba bean offers an alternative and sustainable source of plant-based protein with demonstrated benefits to human health. 2 Australia is currently the largest global exporter of faba bean, with production among the top five in the world due to a combination of improved varieties, agronomic management and favourable prices in international markets. 3,4 However, weed competition is a major constraint on Australian faba bean production, with a limited number of safe or suitable herbicide control options available, and in particular, no safe in-crop herbicide control options for broadleaf weeds. .
Legumes are one of the most essential food in the human diet with a per capita consumption of 2.56 kg year -1 in Europe, while the world average is 7.21 kg year -1 (FAOSTAT, 2013). Most of legumes, like faba beans, are rich in proteins, fats, carbohydrates, antioxidants, fibre, vitamins and minerals (Multari et al., 2015). Faba beans are rich in many bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), with related high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties (Siah et al., 2014;Turco et al., 2016)
First, only a small number of grain legume species, including pea, have been investigated as model species in Fig. 4.1 Spring pea field in Burgundy, France research programs (e.g., Gepts et al. 2005;Murphy-Bokern et al. 2014;Foyer et al. 2016;Magrini et al. 2016). Second, the legume breeding sector is fragmented into a small number of private companies, working on only a few species (Murphy-Bokern et al. 2014;LMC International 2009;Wiggering et al. 2012), despite reports of potential environmental and nutritional benefits associated with the cultivation of alternative legumes species (Jensen et al. 2012;Lucas et al. 2015;Multari et al. 2015
V. faba seeds are low-cost rich sources of energy (344 Kcal 100 g −1 ), protein (200 to 400 g kg −1 ), carbohydrates (510 to 680 g kg −1 ) and dietary fiber (150 to 300 g kg −1 ), being an efficient alternative to partially replace animal protein in Western diets, with high consumption of red and processed meat and associated to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (Multari, Stewart, & Russell, 2015), or to fully replace animal protein in underdeveloped countries (Chaieb et al., 2011;Crépon et al., 2010;Turco, Ferretti, & Bacchetti, 2016). In addition, faba bean was shown to be a suitable food for diabetics, to be able to prevent cardiovascular diseases and to reduce blood glucose levels (Rizkalla, Bellisle, & Slama, 2002)
In the last years, the studies on legumes as protein-sources in food applications have increased. The main reasons for this incremental interest are their worldwide cultivation and good nutritional profile including important micronutrients (Multari et al., 2015). Research has demonstrated that high-protein (predominantly animal-based) diets are likely to be harmful to gut health in longer term, because of a reduction in cancer-protective compounds and an increase in hazardous metabolites (Windey et al., 2012
Hydrolysis probe based real time pcR for GMo soy and whey protein. All on some of the product labels as well as a few unlisted species that researchers considered likely to be a protein boosting adulterant: Zea mays (maize) 15 , Triticum aestivum (wheat) 15 , Vica faba (fava bean) 16 , Cicer arietinum (chickpea) 17 , Cyamopsis sp. (guar or cluster bean) 18 and Medicago sativa (alfalfa grass) 19
The main ANF are α-galactosides (e.g., raffinose, verbascose, stachyose), condensed tannins, protease inhibitors, phytic acid and vicine and convicine [4,6,7]. The pyrimidine glycosides, vicine and convicine, responsible for causing favism in susceptible individuals (suffering from glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency) , are synthesized by the plant as a defence mechanism against fungi and insects . In addition, lectins, found in most legumes, can cause gastrointestinal tract distress 
The amount of L-DOPA in faba bean, however, is dependent on genotypes (Lorenzetti et al., 1998;St. Laurent et al., 2002;Etemadi et al., 2017a), environmental conditions (Goyoaga et al., 2008;Multari et al., 2015), plant growth stage (Geng, 2012), and organs (Etemadi et al., 2018a). Cao (2010) reported a large variation of L-DOPA content among faba bean genotypes, including flowers across 197 cultivars, seedlings across 32 cultivars, and seeds across 52 cultivars with the green seed coat
In this context, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of P deficiency on phytase activity in nodules of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). This legume crop is used worldwide by human populations for food and fodder (Multari et al. 2015;Estève-Saillard 2016;Kudlinskiene et al. 2016;Li et al. 2017;Rizzello et al. 2017). In 2014, Morocco was one of the first countries to produce faba bean (FAOSTAT 2014).
Only a little information about the domestication of faba beans is available in the literature because its wild progenitor is still unidentified.  However, the oldest grains of faba beans were found in the late 10 th millennium B.P. in the north-western Syrian region,  which shows the long history of faba beans consumption as feed and food due to its valuable protein and energy.  Now, faba beans are consumed as dry, fresh, frozen or canned whole grains. .
Most of the protein from green vegetable legumes comes from the developed seeds prior to the dehydration process that gives the dry seed (Martínez et al., 1998). While the protein content of dry seeds has been studied with detail, corresponding studies on fresh legumes are scarse, and most of the work has related to common bean, green peas, and faba bean (De Ron et al., 2017;Lucas et al., 2015;Multari et al., 2015). A study of the possible usage of pea pod, broad bean pod and okara from soybean to obtain functional products indicates that these parts of the plant have high potential to obtain protein but are treated as disposable by-products during food processing (Mateos-Aparicio et al., 2010).
Faba bean has about 1% PA of seed dry weight . It has been shown that PA is markedly reduced through numerous processing methods, such as cooking, soaking, fermentation, and gamma-radiation (reviewed in [33,34]). Plant breeding efforts to reduce faba bean PA are under way at the University of Saskatchewan. .
Legumes constitute an essential component of the biodiversity of Mediterranean cropping systems and of the Mediterranean diet. For example, fava beans are a popular food in the Mediterranean area, where this crop is adapted to low-water conditions (Multari et al., 2015). Nonetheless, legume cultivation has sharply declined in recent decades in Mediterranean countries such as Spain (Lassaletta et al., 2014b
Many countries such as Mediterranean, Middle Easter, Chinese, Indian, African and South American use bean as a standard source of their diet, in addition, it has an impressive importance as inexpensive and protein and carbohydrates rich substance [1,2].Broad bean can be consumed as vegetable as fresh, but if dry seeds and pods was needed the plants will be leaved in the field until the maturity of the pods when it became dry. They contain fibers, carbohydrates, vitamins, proteins and minerals) in addition to (phytic acid alkaloids, saponins and tannins was previously studied [3,4]. Several herbivores and pathogens will infect faba bean which consequently absorb nutrient and energy from plants. ..
Contrairement à celles du soja, les graines de fèverole et certaines espèces de lupins (Lupinus spp.) peuvent être utilisées crues (Guillamón et al., 2008). Elles peuvent constituer une source de protéines alternative à celles du pois protéagineux en alimentation animale (Crépon et al., 2010 ;Jezierny et al., 2010 ;Koivunen et al., 2016 ;Multari et al., 2015). La méta-analyse a montré que le pois chiche (Cicer arietinum) et la lentille (Lens culinaris) ont des performances productives moindres que celle du pois protéagineux en Europe, même si le nombre d’études disponibles pour ces deux espèces est plus faible. ..
Faba beans contain numerous anti-nutritional factors, such as phytic acid, tannins and protease inhibitors, reducing the digestibility of seeds or leading to some pathological conditions (Multari et al., 2015). Therefore, technological processing methods such as extrusion with high pressure, heat and/or steam is used to minimize the negative effects of anti-nutritional factors in legumes. .
Faba bean (Vicia faba L.)-also known as broad bean, fava bean, horse bean and field bean-is a rich source of protein which can be cropped in diverse climates ranging from temperate and subtropical to boreal regions (Multari, Stewart, & Russell, 2015). However, proteins of faba beans and other legumes-with the exception of soybean-remain nutritionally and industrially underexploited
Before defatting, contained 50.5 wt% protein, 28.9 � 0.2 wt% lipid, 6.6 � 0.8 wt% ash and 8.9 � 0.1 wt % moisture and, whereas after defatting, contained 71.0 wt% protein, <0.2 wt% lipid, 12.5 � 1.4 wt% ash and 9.3 � 1.1 wt % moisture. The protein content of SPC was higher than that reported for legumes (Boye, Zare, & Pletch, 2010), meat (Multari, Stewart, & Russell, 2015) or cereals (Zhai, Wang, & Han, 2015). Similar results for protein content were previously obtained for a silkworm pupae protein concentrate (David-Birman, Moshe, & Lesmes, 2019; Tomotake et al., 2010).
Main microorganism used in the fermentation process is Rhizopus oligosporus, a food grade fungus. This mold was proved to be able to decrease the content of anti-nutritional factors contained in legumes such as pyrimidine glucosides, phytic acid, tannins, saponins, lectins and trypsin inhibitors (Multari, Stewart, & Russell, 2015). Moreover, Rhizopus oligosporus was reported to be able to produce beneficial compounds for human health. ..
There is a well-established evidence of anti-carcinogenic activity of tea tannins in animals. They also may protect against LDL-oxidation, inhibit platelet aggregation, reduce the systolic blood pressure and the level of plasma cholesterol, at least in animal and cohort studies, thus preventing cardiovascular diseases (Santos-Buelga and Scalbert, 2000;Multari et al., 2015). …
Faba bean (Vicia faba L.), also known as broad bean and horse bean (Multari, Stewart, & Russell, 2015), is widely cultivated in different areas of the world, particularly in China. The annual production of China was about 1.4 million tons in 2014, which accounted for 34.5% of global production (FAO, 2017). …
For example, Brauckmann and Latté (2010) report that faba bean seeds contain L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), the precursor to the neurotransmitter catecholamine and a drug used to treat Parkinson’s disease. Faba bean also contains antinutritional compounds such as saponins, lectins, tannins, vicine, convicine, and phytic acid (Hendawey and Younes, 2013;Multari et al., 2015). Tannins are known to reduce protein digestibility, while the absence of tannin in zero-tannin faba beans is controlled by either of the two genes zt-1 and zt-2 (Gutierrez et al., 2008;Woyengo and Nyachoti, 2012). …